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The role of gender in public administration has been an intriguing discourse over decades with scenarios indicating its core understanding and definition of what the term gender is presumed to be. The conceptualization of gender from a societal point of view had greatly shaped the pattern of events and roles involving men and women with reverence to their accomplishments and performances which are influenced by their biological features and perceived gender roles. This however has extended its tentacles even into the administrative world and positions, where the male occupies the topmost spots while the female remains in the baseline, a condition known as the glass ceiling effect. However unscrupulous the gender inequality in public administration poses, it is noteworthy that the integration of both genders into the top administrative role will enhance a positive outcome especially when ideas are presented and shared from both gender's points of view (Barako and Brown, 2008; Cartel et al 2003; Burke 1997; Post and Byron, 2015; Singh et al 2001) which will undeniably bring about a positive, enhanced, improved outcome and sustainability in any given administrations. The study intends to focus more on female civil servants working in public administration.  In recent times, women are seen to be increasing in number within the labor force in public administration. Female civil servants in Ghana have made progress and still making progress in occupying positions in the civil service and public administration. However, with this increase, their positions seem not to be at the topmost level. Thus, they are found represented more at the lower and middle hierarchy levels in the workplace while just very few can attain positions in higher levels of public administration (Gadzekpo, 2004). According to Guy and Newman (2004), as they rise to a certain point, the number of women in key positions decreases. The study intends to help us understand better what shapes the career paths and progress of women in public administration. This discourse however has been reviewed by many authors (Adusah-Karikari and Ohemeg, 2014: Sam, 2010; Tsikaka, 2009) to understand the contributory factors to this menace, as there seems to be a case of inequality and discrimination at the workplace of which the female gender is at the receiving end. Aside from the above-mentioned, we are faced with a novel pandemic that could as well possibly influence the increase in the factors that shape the career path of females in the civil service. The emergence of Covid 19 Pandemic has undoubtedly brought about a series of changes that has one way or the other influenced the work and experience of gender (especially women) in public administration. Does the Covid pandemic Pose more Increasing gender inequality in public administration? Considering its spread since it is believed that female is more attached to caring for the family than their male counterparts. For the very few who are active in public administration, what Changes have occurred in shaping their career activities (either positively, negatively, or neutral as the case may be) in response to the Covid 19 pandemic? Thus, this study tends to unveil the factors shaping gender inequality within the public administration as well as how the Covid 19 pandemic has shaped or become a contributory effect towards the career paths of women. However, the case may seem, it is important that women should be seen beyond the common roles they play as wives and mother as vessels that ignites the adequate functionality of a given administration. Thus, using Ghana as a case study for this research, we tend to get the necessary information relating to the aforementioned and other factors that hinder female representativeness in the public administration.


Ghana formerly known as the gold cost is an English-speaking country in West Africa. Bordered by Burkina Faso to the North, Cote d’Ivoire to the west, Togo to the East, and the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean to the south (Boateng and Paulina 2009). According to world meter 2020, she has a population rank of 47 in the world, with approximately 31 million distributed across 10 administrative regions and 138 districts and covering a land area of 227,540 km2 with a population density of 137 per km2. It is estimated that 57% of the total population lives in the Urban while 43% live in rural areas. Her major cities include Accra, Kumasi, Tamale, and Takoradi with population estimates of 2m, 1.4m, 360,000, and 232,000, respectively. The three-core economic reliance of Ghana's productivity in terms of its GDP includes agriculture, industry, and services with a share of 17%, 32%, and 44% respectively (Statista 2021). According to World Bank (2019), as estimated by the International Labour Organization (ILO), the employment services of male and female in 2019 was 44.3% and 54.3% respectively. Furthermore, the wages/salaried worker and family workers contribution was estimated at 32.9% and 5.3% for males, while that of females was estimated at 17.3% and 13.1%. The above estimates indicate that irrespective of the fact that women are more represented in services, they earn less from their salary and provide more for family upkeep in Ghana. 


It is unfortunate that even though the female gender in Ghana is highly represented in civil services, they are still faced with a vast number of challenging situations which hinder or obstruct their representativeness in the top and decision-making positions of the public administrations and services to the Government. This however could play a negative role in influencing a downturn of administrative progress considering their low level of representativeness. It is worthy of note that females are extremely important to take part in every administrative position and decision making to ensure quality functions and effectiveness at the workplace. Diving into an in-depth knowledge of gender involvement regarding administrative positions in Ghana, The World Bank 2019, estimates of overall gender employment in services was 44.3% and 54.3% for male and female, respectively. However high the value of females in services is to their male counterparts, they are still found occupying some baseline positions in public administration. For instance, the proportion of females in the national parliament and ministerial level positions were 13% and 25% respectively as against their male counterparts which are 87% and 75% (World Bank, 2019; Global gender index 2020). Again, for the legislators, and senior officials (managerial positions), the proportion of male and female representatives was 58% and 42% respectively. The 2020 Global gap index has shown Ghana’s rank to be 107 out of 153 countries with an overall gender parity score of 0.673. However, the sub-indexes specifically economic participation cum opportunity, political empowerment as well as females in parliament were 0.642, 0.129, and 1.15respectively, where the gender parity of 1 shows the benchmark in the gender gap (Global Gender Index 2020). The aforementioned general statistics signify that the majority of the female civil servants in Ghana occupy low positions in public administration irrespective of their increasing employment in services. Several factors are seen to influence women's participation in public administration thus leading to gender inequality in public administration. In Ghana, some factors influencing the gender gap in the public administration are culturally inclined thus putting the majority of females in some indecisive and overwhelmed situations. These in the long run is likely to shape a woman’s mindset in taking certain decision regarding balancing her work-life and relationship. Moreover, we are faced with a novel factor- the Covid-19 emergence which undoubtedly could be inclusive in shaping women's position in public administration, as the present situation not only presents its ugly nature worldwide but has shaped various ongoing activities on a large scale, especially within the public administration. It is noteworthy that women are highly needed in the topmost and decision-making positions of administration, else there will continue to be a nonstop event of ineffectiveness leading to a chronic negative impact on the overall activities within the public administration. Thus, understanding the impacts of Covid-19 as well as other factors that hinders career progress amongst female in civil service in Ghana will go a long way to further provide possible means of strategic patterns to control its negative impacts on female folks.


  1. The objectives of this study are to examine the impacts of Covid 19 pandemic as well as other factors influencing female civil servants in Ghana from attaining top positions in public administration

  2. To study the female work-life balance in the public administration of Ghana

  3. To investigate the situations of gender discrimination and attitudes of female civil servants towards sexual harassment within their workplace in Ghana

  4. To study the concept of male and female fields of work with staff and chiefs of different sexes in public administration


  1. How have the Covid-19 pandemic and other factors influenced female civil servants in Ghana from attaining top positions in public administration?

  2. How does female civil servant manage their work-life balance within the public administration in Ghana?

  3.  What forms of attitudes do female civil servants in Ghana portray towards gender discrimination and sexual harassment within their workplace?

  4. What concept has shaped male and female fields of work with staff and chiefs of different sexes in public administration?


This study is one of its kind as the emergence of pandemics is changing every aspect of the world including within public administration. Thus, getting interesting information regarding this research will bring about a novel idea of the situation as well as unveil some new factors shaping the career of women in public administration as regards the emergence of the Covid-19 pandemic.  Again, the research will be of great interest to policymakers and other bodies advocating for progress and sustenance in public administration where women will also be included in the decision-making process to ensure adequate progress and growth in an organization. Furthermore, possible recommendations will ensure sustainability in the engagement of the female gender in civil service enabling them to be increasingly represented regardless of the hindrances and factors which pose a great threat to their career. 


The phenomenon of the glass ceiling effect emphasizes invisible barriers which resist the efforts of women in reaching the topmost position within the organization. This phenomenon has been in existence for decades of years even into the 21st century. Though uncertain how the term was coined, it had been used by various feminists including Marilyn Loden in 1978 and Gay Bryant in 1984, when women entering the labor force found themselves unable to advance beyond certain levels of management. Women especially within the childbearing ages were seen as less motivated and less disciplined than their male counterparts due to their perception of work leave and family duties. These led to a long-term bias and prejudice even into the new era of administration because regardless of the increase in educational attainment and increase in female labor force participation, women still find themselves in low positions within the administration. Besides, there are diverse conceptual factors posited by varying authors and scholars explaining thoughts on a woman’s position or stance both in society and in the administrative body stemming mainly from cultural norms which seem to be the backbone and baseline where other factors emanate from.


Several scholars have studied varying features which has shaped the number of women attaining administrative top positions and these circumstances still display the effect of the glass ceiling (Parcheta, Kaifi, and Khanfar, 2013; Purcell, 2013). Thus, influencing the majority of women to occupy lower organizational positions despite their increasing population within the civil service workforce. Though there seems to be some significant potential and progress of female involvement in decision making especially in some European countries like Finland and Denmark where women are more represented in the top positions within the organizations, the situation seems to be vice versa in developing countries of which Ghana is not exempted. Aidoo and Achara (2016), posits four factors impeding the careers of women in the formal sector organizations in Ghana including organizational barrier (towards the career progression of women by making them work harder than men to get promoted in an organization), the role of government (which ensures no affirmative action to improve the number of women in upper echelons), influence of the society (which shows perception of men as better managers than women) as well as contributions made by the women themselves (especially those in top position being reluctant in ensuring and supporting other women in lower levels to reach the top). Adusah-Karikari and Akuko (2010) argued that all efforts to promote women empowerment in Ghana, especially within the public sector seem less progressive and below expectation. The aforementioned seems to be mainly attributed to the cultural and traditional beliefs which have engulfed the workplace, the entire society as well as the government. Other influencing factors towards the recognition of the inequalities in organizations are seen from various dimensions including.


We could see gender stereotype as a sociocultural factor playing a crucial role in influencing the participation of women up to the top positions. For instance, a societal culture that assigns subordinate roles to women and managerial roles to men influences low participation of women as well as the discrimination and domineering attitudes of the males in the managerial positions which usually in most situations intimidates a woman, thus increasing the lack of motivation and loss of enthusiasm in their workplace (Jebessa et al. (2015). In a study on women's engagement in decision-making in rural Ghana, Opare (2005) found that women were underrepresented due to gender stereotypes. The author found cultural beliefs regarding men as natural leaders and women as followers, as being a significant determinant of low women participation. Other significant determinants were the low educational levels of women and too many domestic responsibilities for women. According to Netright (2015) cited in Manuh and Anyidoho (2015), partisanship is a major setback to women's advancement in Ghana. Moreover, the low representation of women in top management and leadership positions in Ghana was attributed to the poor operationalization and enforcement of gender policies (Manuh and Anyidoho, 2015). The aforementioned was also likened to the manifesto of Abuntu (2004), where he identified cultural practices beyond some policies in the civil services. Thus, resulting in gender biases and creating a scenario where women will have to struggle in the workplace in Ghana. In sum, culture has modified the female folk such that, it has deprived them of confidence in their ability to perform by shaping their attitudes toward adequate functions in the workplace with the mindset that they must be subordinate to their male counterparts at the workplace.


Sometimes, inadequate work-life balance seems to be influenced by stress, especially with regard to the nature of the work and the number of hours expected to work. Selye (1964), opined stress is a physical and psychological response to adverse situations which probably influences an individual performance in the workplace. Furthermore, Nwadiani (2006) defined stress as a disruption in the emotional ability of an individual which induces a state of disorganization in personality and behavior which could be as well exhibited unknowingly at the workplace. From the occupational point of view, as posited by Holmlund and Shandrik (2005), the inability of employees to manage job demands and requirements in the workplace is largely associated with stress. Thus, in some scenarios, the tendency of female civil servants to manage, and balance work and life with respect to their highly demanding jobs could be incredibly challenging and could seem to be a major source of disengagement at the workplace (Cartwright and Boyes, 2000), especially in cases where she has demanding caregiving responsibility to perform before resuming duties at the workplace.  These caregiving roles inevitably extend across a woman’s lifetime and career, and in most cases lead to an off-track career as well as hindrances and promotion opportunities to managerial positions. In cases where females fight to attain such a position, there are tendencies of challenging situations in reorganizing their professional life and having to make a choice of what place will be given to family and work.


 In some situations and circumstances, an individual seems glued to a course of action in her organizational duties relevant to achieving goals in order to maintain her stance in the organization (Meyer, Becker and Vandick, 2006). The concept of commitment as explained by Mowday, Porter and Steers (1982) is seen as a strength relating to an individual’s identity with active involvement, willingness, and desire in retaining membership in the organization. However, some authors emphasized some demographic variables including age and length of tenure in an organization as factors influencing commitment within an organization (Harrison and Hubbard, 1998; Allen and Meyer 1993), with emphasis on decreasing employment opportunities as their age increases. This creates motivation amongst civil servants to invest efforts to the progress of an organization with the aim of valuable consideration and job retainment (Gregersen and Black 1992; Meyer and Allen 1984: Mowday et al 1982). In view of this, a recent study in Ghana by Abdul-Nasiru et al, 2014 showed that age and length of tenure (the older the employee, the more committed they are and vice versa) showed a positive correlation to commitment in the Organization. Even though the study also showed male civil servant to be more committed than female, there is the possibility that female was underrepresented in the first instance considering the high number of male respondents to female in the overall sample.  From a contrary perspective, the culture of subordination and the domineering nature of men towards women have negatively impacted and influenced low performance reduced active participation, and motivation to work among females in their workplace (Opare, 2015). Thus, leading to a reduced commitment to work and passive performance by female civil servants within the workplace.


 Sexual harassment at the workplace has been vague and quite misunderstood with courtship or playful flirting and as such enhanced its digression and less attention.  Again, there is a widely understood sentiment regarding sexual harassment with respect to the ideology of male biasedness which subjects women as subordinate sex objects. Consequently, creating a scenario of sexual harassment as informal despite its existence. Ayeetey (2004), pointed out that sexual harassment represents part of a culture of male prowess and masculinity towards the pursuit of women as an instrument of sexual pleasure and in cases where victims are harassed, the blames eventually falls on the said victims rather than the complaints been attended to, with increasing stigmatizations and punishments towards the victim. Coker-Appiah and Cusack (1999), found out in their study of violence against women in Ghana that the issue of silence over sexual harassment in Ghanaian society is also a result of shame and fear. Andoh also observed that over 90% of cases of sexual harassment were apparently unreported, noting the possibility of the fact that the victims are often pressurized to overlook these offensive behaviors. In another study by Andoh (2001), the issue of sexual harassment in the workplace in Ghana showed that about 74% and 42% of female and male employees respectively had experienced harassment at the workplace in the past and this scenario was linked to the power games between the domineering males and subordinate females where the females are either offered rewards for sexual favors or are victimized for refusal to comply.


Interpersonal relationships and communications also have an effect such that female has less interaction and networking due to their asocial behaviors, deprived of informal interpersonal relationships and channels of communication compared to their male counterparts (Elliot and Smith, 2004) as a result of cultural norms. Unlike women, men frequently interact more with other executives in a more casual way. This creates an avenue for more sponsors and sell of their skills and abilities to the organization.  Females in civil service however lack access to interaction and communications with people in top positions, and this could depend on perceptions that establishing such relationship is attached to sexual interest.  In view of this, the lack of opportunity to access these channels by a majority of women seems to bring about a bridging gap as to why women are not able to attain the top position in an organization. 

Furthermore, other factors including bias in employment and promotion of women, lack of quality education for occupying management positions, and lack of equal endorsement and opportunity in organizations for the female civil servant (Taleghani, Pourezat, & Faraji, 2009) also form the basis of hindrances to attaining top positions within the organizations. It is worthy of note that the majority of these factors are embedded and propagated through cultural norms, which seem to be in control of society, the government, and the public administration. Thus, setting female civil servants at the receiving end and affecting their capacity in gaining career advancement.


 The novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) which is responsible for the ongoing coronavirus disease (Covid 19), is a zoonotic disease that was first reported in Wuhan China around December 2019 (Li Q et al 2020). Ever since the inception of this novel virus, the World Health Organization declared the disease as a health emergency of international concern which was termed the world pandemic disease on the 11th of March 2020 due to the nature of its transmission and spread (WHO, 2020). This has however disrupted the general and routine activities on a global scale with its effects on all sectors of both the developed and developing countries. In a bid to control the devastating situation, The World Health Organization proposed a lockdown and some forms of social distancing which however presented its own underlying effects in varying dimensions, especially when viewed from a gendered perspective because women tend to be most affected by this situation than their male counterparts.


The emergence of Covid 19 had shown that females were more affected than their male counterparts in a negative way, thereby revealing the possibility of an increase in the gender gap and gender inequality even after the Pandemic. This has shown a huge concern since there could be a downturn and the likelihood of a reversal in accumulated efforts and progress that ensured gender equality over the decades.

Ghana recorded its first cases of the Covid 19 infection on 12th March 2020 and as of May 25th, 2020, over 7,000 cases with 34 deaths (Worldometer, 2020) This led to the Nationwide lockdown addressing its core reasons including containing the spread of the virus, provision of adequate care for the sick and limiting the impact of the virus on the social and economic life of her citizens (Ghana News Agency, 2020). However impressive the approach seems, the lockdown brought about its own negative outcome on her citizenry, especially on the female gender. The vulnerability accrued from these effects had a great impact on all ramifications including the social, political, and economic system on a global scale. The civil service administration is not exempted in this case, especially regarding the female gender which has shown an exacerbated scenario by virtue of their sex. These impacts have affected the socio-economic status quo disrupting both business and administrative jobs leading to the majority having to lose their jobs and means of livelihoods. Recent figures according to the Ghana Statistical Service 2020, showed that about 770,000 of the total workforce had their wages reduced while 42,000 were laid off during the covid 19 pandemic partial lockdown in Ghana. Furthermore, 77.4% of households reported that their total household income has been reduced since March 16, 2020. These effects bestow more pressure and shock on women’s economic and productive lives than their male counterparts due to their vulnerability. For instance, women initially earn less and hold fewer positions than male in the civil service, yet they tend to spend more from their income in terms of family expenditures. Again, the fact that women will have to take on greater unpaid jobs and care puts the majority at risk of losing their jobs in the civil service due to the emergence of the covid 19 and its associated lockdown (Wenham et al, 2020). These resultant effects are unpalatable as it limits her ability to support herself and cater to her family, especially in cases where she seems to be the breadwinner. Furthermore, the fact that the pandemic has increased gender-based violence is another angle this impact is envisioned from. On the 6th of April 2020, the United Nations Secretary-General, António Guterres emphasized on the increase in domestic violence towards women and girls as a result of the lockdown due to Covid 19 pandemic. This explains that in situations where a female civil servant would have used her hours at the workplace to avoid an abusive spouse, the covid 19 and its lockdown rules had brought about an increase in the number and period of exposure to domestic violence and abuse as a result of being trapped at home with an abusive partner for a long period of time. Moreover, most women that have lost their jobs will likely opt to remain in an abusive relationship due to financial dependence or fear that divorce could increase unsafe personal and children's well-being (Rajah and Osborn 2020), especially in a patriarchal society where divorce is not common and family preservation is valued. This situation has even been more compounded during the pandemic as a result of limitations in mobility and increasing economic vulnerability among women who have been experiencing some form of violence prior to the pandemic.  It is quite unfortunate that in such situations, the majority of civil society is being overwhelmed with the present situation thus not paying much attention to other social dismay and vices.  Mueller et al (2019) opined that access to the legal system and support services was limited during the pandemic is limited thus making the situation more compounded. Furthermore, the emergence of covid 19 was also seen to increase moonlighting due to financial difficulty and the quest for survival. This was accrued as a result of loss of jobs and decreasing salary due to reduced working hours enhanced by the covid 19 pandemic (Richard 2021). 


Relevant insights from studies and cases by researchers in Ghana have revealed some impacts and effects of factors that shape female civil servants within their work organizations in Ghana.

2.3.1 CASE ONE

A study by Majoreen Aryeetey, Frank Yaw Yeboah, and Mohammed-Aminu Sanda 2011, on enabling work-family balance for female professionals in Ghanaian Organisations. The main aim of the study was to identify the problem obstructing professional female employees from maintaining a good work-life balance and also to develop a framework that organizations could use in understanding these challenges towards designing a better alternative work arrangement that will suit the retention of professional female employees in an organization. The method of the data collection employed was a survey with a snowball method used for selecting women of varying professional qualification in the city of Ghana (the study site because it is densely populated with key organizations that engages skilled women in Ghana) A total of 100 white collar professional female employees between ages 24-58 were selected and administered a questionnaire (containing the demographics of respondent and questions measuring the impact of work-life balance and alternative work arrangement), out of which 80 were returned and found to be useful. The demographic characteristics revealed 54% of respondents were married while 24% were single. Also, their career distribution varied across different professional areas including administration, health, accounting, and human resources amongst others. From the work-life balance perspective, 51% indicated dissatisfaction, 25% considered it to be good and 11% indicated it to be poor. Emphasis on the time of departure from home to work showed that 86% of respondents leave home between 6 and 8 am in the morning and return at 6 pm in the evening and in some cases, about 20% of respondents indicated returning home at 8 pm in the evening. As a result, about 76% of respondents feel stressed due to their work-life imbalance and emphasized that difficulty in maintaining their work-life balance could motivate them to leave their current organization for a more flexible offer if the opportunity present itself. The study also revealed a follow-up assessment of the rate at which job changes occur among the respondents. It showed that about 72% had changed jobs at least once, 39% had changed jobs only once, 24% had changed jobs only twice and less than 4% had changed jobs more than six times. Though, about 24% had never changed their jobs and as explained by the researchers it was attributed to first-time employment. Furthermore, the study also revealed that about 44% of professional female employees have ideas about alternative work arrangements and the type they wish to institute in their organizations. They indicated that flexible time (24%), compressed workweek (19%), and telecommuting (21%) were good approaches while permanent part-time (21%) and job sharing (15%) seem to be unfavorable for them.

2.3.2 CASE TWO

A study was done by Richard K. Asravo in Ghana, on the moonlighting activities to survive in a pandemic era showed the effect and impact of covid 19 among civil servants with emphasis on determinants of moonlighting among the males and females in Ghana during the covid 19 pandemic period as well as understanding whether the covid 19 is a push or pull factor in the moonlighting behavior of both sexes. The study employed the use of data collated from a semi-structured questionnaire administered to potential respondents through an online survey between April and June 2020. The questionnaires were first pretested and then modified before the final distribution through the mailing list of the researcher. The potential respondents were gotten using a purposive and convenience sampling technique since the Covid 19 period prevented the use of a probability sampling method. Also, the method provided adequacy in targeting the working individuals residing in Ghana. It is noteworthy that the questionnaire includes demographic characteristics as well as the household income and expenditure patterns of respondents during the coronavirus period.

Out of the distributed questionnaire, 393 respondents answered the questionnaires of which 340 were correctly answered and utilized for the study. The overall results showed that the Covid 19 pandemic is more likely to increase participation in moonlighting than in situations when there was no covid 19. In comparing the male and female moonlighters, the study showed that about 33% of moonlighting men are into moonlighting and about 97% of women are moonlighters because of the covid 19 pandemic. The main motivating factor for this was the unsatisfactory financial rewards from a current job (having the highest mean value of 3.845 and 3.765 for the male and female respondents respectively). Also, moonlighting was higher for women (0.6469) than for men (0.3248) due to the Covid 19 pandemic with the second most important reason for women to be lowering the risk of their primary job loss with a mean value of 3.510 which is contrary to their male counterparts indicating that ensuring job security with a mean value of 3.691 was their second most important reasons for moonlighting. The study informed that aside from the usual low income and salary from current jobs, the emergence of Covid 19 has led to increasing cuts in salary and number of hours at work which has led to many employees receiving half the amount of the salaries they were receiving before the Covid 19. Thus, multiple jobs combination is required for their sustenance and survival in footing various bills accrued.


An empirical study on the organizational commitment in the public service of Ghana by Inusah Abdul et al, 2014. The aim of the study was to examine the commitment of workers within the civil/ public service of Ghana investigating commitment by employees at the workplace as well as assessing relationships between ages cum tenure to work commitment. The researchers employ a purposive and stratified random sampling technique in selecting the various participants (from different ministries, departments, and agencies) to ensure adequacy in representativeness. Out of 410 employees selected and administered the questionnaire, a total of 343 employees including 204 males and 139 females were rightly selected for the study. The questionnaire was sectioned into two parts comprising demographics and commitment scale to assess their biological data and level of organizational commitment. Their findings show males to be more committed at the workplace than females with a mean score of 98.11 and 79.52, respectively.  It also revealed that irrespective of gender, age, and tenure in service has a positive relationship with commitment at the workplace. The contributory factors that could possibly explain high commitment in males seem to be the traditional attitudes in side-lining females as homemakers while the males are seen as the breadwinner. This tends to demotivate females at the workplace when they have to balance between family and work, while the males focus basically on work without other distractions.


To sum up, it is undeniably true that female civil servants in public administrations are faced with a series of challenging situations obstructing their progress into the upper echelons of administrative and decision-making positions. These factors are however embedded within the baseline of cultural and traditionally acclimatized perceptions creating a vast gender gap and inequality. Worst still is that the emergence of the pandemic has spiced up these factors and created more likelihood of negative effects on the female population in the civil service. It is important that advocacy and better policies which will support and enhance the active involvement of females in civil service be put in place. Government should act as a catalyst in promoting agenda that supports gender equality in the workplace as well as awareness of the negative impact if women are not duly represented. Also, organizations and employers should be committed to gender diversity as well as creating a more balanced work environment that won’t overwhelm female civil servants within the workplace since they also possess the talents and skills for productivity and sustainability within the organization.


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